Tag Archives: knowledge

Why the Gap Between the Educated and the Illiterate is Growing

people no longer read

Recently, I attended a conference on the future of the book. The speaker made the distinction between two kinds of readers, namely shallow and deep readers.

Shallow readers typically grab information on the go and consume it on electronic devices. Deep readers, on the other hand, practice slow reading and like to pause to reflect on the text they’re reading.

One type of reader, the speaker said, is growing in number, while the other is in sharp decline. Can you guess which is which?

Deep reading is losing ground for the most part because it’s increasingly hard to find distraction-free spaces (and yes, those are getting scare because deep reading is less popular). Even university libraries seem to shy away from guaranteeing the three prerequisites for deep reading, namely withdrawal, attention and silence. Rather, the big trend is for multimedia areas, team rooms and coffee shops.

What’s the consequence of this shift?

The speaker at the conference wasn’t the timid type. He argued that the old divide between the educated elite and the illiterate masses is making a comeback. People are losing the necessary skills to integrate written knowledge effectively.

Yes, my friends, you’ve read me right. The ideal of the democratization of education is taking a blow.

To me, this is overly alarmist. Neither do I agree with Nicolas Carr that Google is making us stupid.

That being said, there’s room for concern. Whether this is a modern problem or not, few people fully engage with written knowledge. Most are merely interested in getting information.

Deep reading enables you to transform information into knowledge.

Knowledge is information that has become part of your understanding and experience. If you don’t take the time to connect the dots and integrate what you read, you’re not really learning.

So find a quiet spot, dive into your reading and become a peak learner.

The 5 Types of Knowledge Workers (or 5 Ways to Use Knowledge)

who is a knowledge worker

What’s the objective of my blog? Help knowledge workers become peak learners.

Our environment is now changing so fast that knowing (static) has become less important than being able to know fast (dynamic).

But before looking at the how, let’s settle the what. What is a knowledge worker?

Here’s the definition put forward by the famous Peter Drucker: “Someone who knows more about his or her job than anyone else in the organization.”

Insightful, but a little vague.

A good way to grasp what defines these workers is to inspect their relation with knowledge. According to the knowledge management expert Tom Davenport, knowledge workers deal with knowledge in five different ways.

They can:

  1. create it
  2. find it
  3. package it
  4. distribute it
  5. apply it

Knowledge creators are the prime movers of all knowledge work. More than the four other types, creating takes place in the worker’s brain. Examples include researchers, authors and inventors.

Knowledge searchers are expert at quickly finding the right information for other users. Examples include librarians, intelligence analysts and head hunters.

Knowledge packagers put together the knowledge generated by creators. Their main purpose is to make other knowledge workers’ tasks more efficient. Examples include publishers, editors and designers.

Knowledge distributors communicate knowledge or create systems and processes to improve access to it. Examples include teachers, journalists and managers.

Knowledge appliers are at the end of the knowledge line. Their job is to use and reuse knowledge to accomplish specific goals. Examples include doctors, accountants and lawyers.

Before finding strategies to improve your performance and become a peak learner, you should first clarify what you generally do with knowledge at your job.

So what kind of knowledge worker are you?

The Path from Belief to Knowledge: 5 Levels of Certainty

how to think like a scientist

An old friend of mine recently told me that video games are harmful for my kids’ brain. When I asked him why he thought that, he didn’t bring up some scientific data or research. Instead, he pointed to an acquaintance of ours whose kids are gifted and guess what? They never play video games.

I was flabbergasted.

How can a university-educated man show so little critical thinking and make such unbridled inference? Of course, I quickly made him admit that a ton of other variables could play a role here. And even if a correlation existed, as any college freshman knows, it wouldn’t imply causation.

This story highlights one important fact about belief and knowledge.

As Gary Marcus shows in Kluge, humans often believe first and think later, rather than the other way around. In other words, once we decide that something is true (for whatever reason), we’ll look for reasons to support that belief. The conclusion comes before the premises.

This is a fascinating topic, which I’ll explore in a future post, but today I want to talk about the truth. No less.

How can we make sure that A causes B? How do I know if video games will really damage my kids?

Here are 5 degrees of certainty.

  1. Anecdotes. People just love anecdotal evidence (ex: this cured my brother-in-law), because it’s vivid and personal. But understand this, it’s the weakest kind of proof you can offer.
  2. Experts’ opinion. Experts’ knowledge is more comprehensive, but it often suffers from biases.
  3. Empirical research. This is where beliefs start becoming knowledge, but its reliability level greatly varies due to the presence or not of controls (variables and groups) and peer review.
  4. Meta-analysis. When findings of several independent studies point in the same direction, your claim rests on a solid foundation.
  5. Mega-analysis. When meta-analyses say the same thing, this is as good as it gets. A good example is Hattie’s Visible Learning, which is a synthesis of 800 meta-analyses including 80 million students.

As a peak learner, assessing the validity of new data and current beliefs should become a reflex. Using the 5 levels of certainty presented here can be an excellent start.

Why I Send My Kids to A Traditional School (Old vs New School)

old school teaching

My two daughters attend a good old traditional school. They wear a uniform, learn respect, and have to memorize things. A lot of things. Sentences, formulas, dates, and many other facts.

Is this focus on raw knowledge justified? Is there a case to be made for rote learning? The answer is yes. If you want to become a peak learner, you first need to prioritize memory over thinking.

The supporters of the modern curriculum like to quote Montaigne, who famously preferred a well-made rather than well-filled head. They also argue that facts quickly become obsolete, are easily forgotten, and memorizing them is often a waste of time since so much info now lies at our fingertips. So learners should instead hone their reasoning, creativity and critical thinking.

No doubt, such skills lie at the core of what peak learning is. Relying on rote learning alone would restrict you to solving past problems.

But developing your thinking without a solid mental database is like starting a building without having all the necessary material. It’s counterproductive, and the best planning and building skills can’t make up for the lack of material.

As Hirsch notes in his famous essay “You Can Always Look It Up”, a simple definition can only be understood if you already know a large part of what you read. Ironically, you learn what you already know. That’s why experts are peak learners. They learn more, better and faster, precisely because they have access to a rich repertoire of knowledge.

Like in all things, balance is key. Learning without thinking leads nowhere, but reasoning and analyzing without having a good grasp of the facts will often prove as sterile.

Do you want to be a peak learner? Do like my kids. First master the fundamentals; then the higher levels of thinking will come naturally.